The cardiovascular system is also known as the circulatory system is the system responsible for the flow and transport of blood to all parts of the body. The cardiovascular system consists of blood vessels (veins and arteries) that help to transport blood. These blood vessels have specific functions.
Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart and the pulmonary artery and are responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood away from the heart to the lung. Blood pressure in the arteries is moderately high.
Veins return deoxygenated blood to the heart and bring oxygenated blood from the heart to the lung. The flow of blood in the veins is under moderately low pressure.
Cardiovascular diseases are heart conditions that include diseased vessels, blood clots, and structural problems. Some examples of cardiovascular diseases are heart failure, stroke, cardiomyopathy, heart attack, coronary artery disease, and peripheral artery disease.
it is also known as heart muscle disease, usually acquired or hereditary. It is a heart condition whereby it becomes difficult for the heart to deliver blood and this can lead to heart failure. Symptoms include breathlessness, fainting, coughing while lying down, swelling of the legs, ankles, and feet, weight gain, loss of appetite, constipation, and bloating.
Causes of congestive heart failure include heart tissue damage from a heart attack, thyroid disease, metabolic disorder, obesity, long-term high blood pressure, a heart valve problem, and diabetes.
According to the center for disease control and prevention, 50 percent of people diagnosed with cardiomyopathy will survive beyond five years
stroke, also known as a cerebrovascular accident is a medical emergency that occurs when the blood supply to part of your brain is interrupted or reduced thereby preventing the brain tissue from getting oxygen and nutrient which can lead to death or permanent disability. When the part of the brain that is supplied by the clotted blood vessel is deprived of blood and oxygen, the cells of that part of the brain dies and the part of the body that controls it stops working.
Symptoms of stroke include headache, nausea, vision loss, fatigue, vomiting, and change in the level of consciousness.
also called myocardial infarction is a medical emergency that occurs when a blood clot blocks the blood flow to the heart. Common signs and symptoms of an impending heart attack include fatigue, cold sweat, shortness of breath, nausea, heartburn or abdominal pain, squeezing, or aching sensation in your chest or arm. A mild heart attack symptom could last for two to five minutes, full heart attack with complete blockage could last for twenty minutes or more and can lead to death.
RISK FACTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
Several factors increase the likelihood of getting heart diseases, these factors include:
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
the heart contracts to force blood into the arteries. The pressure exerted by the blood against the arterial wall is called blood pressure. The pressure however gets reduced proportionately with distance from the heart and so considerably low in the venules and veins. Blood pressure is maintained by the force of the heart contraction and the elasticity of the arterial wall. The diminished pressure in the capillaries and veins makes blood to ooze or flow gently when a vein is cut in a wound. Blood pressure is measured by an instrument called a sphygmomanometer.
- The ideal blood pressure is considerable 140/190mm/Hg
- high blood pressure is considered to be140/90mm/Hg
- low blood pressure is around 90/60 or lower
High blood pressure can be caused by several factors, some of which includes:
- Clogging of the arteries due to accumulation of fat causing the heart to pump blood faster
- Drinking too much alcohol
- Lack of physical exercise
- Metabolism disorder
- Disease on the wall of the blood vessel
Anemia is the shortage of blood or lack of blood as it is commonly believed. It is the shortage of red blood cells or in some form or lack of hemoglobin in the red blood cell so that the red blood cells are not able to carry sufficient oxygen to the cells for respiration. Some common symptoms of anemia include dizziness, fatigue, lightheadedness, headache, and shortness of breath. Some causes of anemia are:
- Injuries or damage is done to the bone marrow where red blood cells are manufactured to reduce the number of red blood cell in the blood
- Malnutrition: low intake of food containing essential nutrients such as iron and proteins leading to poor quality of protoplasm and hemoglobin
- Severe bleeding from injuries leading to loss of large volume of blood (involving numerous red blood cells)
Obesity is a condition whereby a person has more body fat than is safe and healthy. It often stems from the excess accumulation of fat that is not burned by normal daily activities. Body mass index (BMI) ranging from 18.5-24.9 is ideal for an adult of normal body weight, while a BMI of 30.0 or higher is an indication of obesity. Due to the excess accumulation of fat in the body of overweight people, the arteries become clogged, and this forces the heart to exert more force when pumping blood thereby causing high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases.
Other risk factors include age, medical history, family history, alcohol, smoking, lack of exercise, and sex